Lung Cancer

About Lung Cancer Disease, Classification of Lung Cancer, Sign and Symptoms of Lung Cancer, Causes and Risk factors of Lung Cancer, Pathophysiology of Lung Cancer, Tests for Diagnosis of Lung Cancer, Treatment of Lung Cancer, Alternative Therapy of Lung Cancer.

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Lung Cancer Disease

Lung cancer is one of killer disease among both men and women. It claims more lives each year than colon, prostate, lymph and breast cancers combined. Like other cancers, The lung cancer is results from an abnormality in the body's basic unit of life, the cell. In the lung cancers cases, the uncontrolled cells reproduce rapidly grow into normal lung tissue because of malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue.

Estimated new cases and deaths from lung cancer {Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)} in the United States in 2008 (Info: NCI): New cases: 215,020 and Deaths: 161,840.

To get more information about lung cancer, you can directly go to this links :

  • Classification of Lung Cancer
  • Sign and Symptoms of Lung Cancer
  • Causes and Risk factors of Lung Cancer
  • Pathophysiology of Lung Cancer
  • Tests for Diagnosis of Lung Cancer
  • Treatment of Lung Cancer
  • Alternative Therapy for Lung Cancer

  • Or you can see more lung cancer articles on this links also:

  • Description of Lung Cancer
  • All Cancers Info
  • Lung Cancer (Mesothelioma)

  • Read more!

    Classification of Lung Cancer

    There are important classification of Lung Cancer which started in the lungs and others lung cancer that has spread to the lung from another part of the body. Basically, The lung cancer has divided into two criteria according to the level spread of lung cancer it self :

  • Primary lung cancer (cancer that has started in the lungs)
  • Secondary lung cancer (cancer that has spread to the lungs)

  • 1. Primary Lung Cancer

    Lung cancer which include in this criteria are divided into two main types; Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These two types of cancers grow and spread in different ways, so a distinction between these two types is important. This classification is based upon the microscopic appearance of the tumor cells themselves.

    a. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC)
    SCLC accounts for about 20% of all lung cancers, these cancers are sometimes called oat cell carcinomas. Although the cells are small, they multiply quickly and form large tumors that can spread throughout the body. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are usually responds better to the chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

    SCLC are strongly related to cigarette smoking, with only 1% of these tumors occurring in nonsmokers. The occurrence of lung cancer in non-smokers, who account for fewer than 10% of cases, appears to be due to a combination of genetic factors, radon gas, asbestos, and air pollution, including second-hand smoke.

    b. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
    Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for about 80% of lung cancers. The NSCLC are diveded into three subtypes such as Squamous cell carcinoma (also called epidermoid carcinoma), Adenocarcinoma and Large cell carcinoma.

    - Squamous cell carcinomas were formerly more common than adenocarcinomas, its increase most frequently in the central chest area in the bronchi which known as epidermoid carcinomas. These is the most common type of lung cancer in men.

    - This cancer is found in the glands of the lungs that produce mucus. While adenocarcinomas are associated with smoking like other lung cancers, this type is especially observed as well in nonsmokers who develop lung cancer. These is the most common type of lung cancer in women.

    - These is type of lung cancer that forms near the surface, or outer edges, of the lungs. This type of lung cancer tends to grow quite quickly, sometimes referred to as undifferentiated carcinomas, are the least common type of NSCLC.

    2. Secondary Lung Cancer
    Secondary lung cancer is cancers that has spread from another part of the body. There are quite a few different cancers that can spread to the lungs, including breast cancer and bowel cancer.

    Cancers from anywhere in the body may spread to the lungs either through the bloodstream, lymphatic system, or by directly from nearby organs. The metastatic tumors (cancers) are most often multiple, scattered throughout the lung, and concentrated in the peripheral rather than central areas of the organ.

    Read more!

    Sign and Symptoms of Lung Cancer

    Signs and symptoms of lung cancer typically occur only when the disease is advanced, It will take many years to develop which often leads to diagnosis at an advanced stage of this disease. Sometimes lung cancer does not cause any symptoms and is only found by a routine x-ray, It is important to talk to a doctor when symptoms are present. The most common symptoms of lung cancer are may include:

  • Smoker's cough that persists or becomes intense.
  • Cough is an important symptom of lung cancer, but it is difficult to distinguish cough associated with lung cancer from cough associated smoking or cough associated with chronic lung conditions like COPD that has resulted from smoking.

  • Breathing problems (shortness of breath or wheezing)
  • Any kind of "shortness of breath" is a potentially life-threatening emergency, It may lead to the dangerous causes such as heart attack, pneumonia, or pulmonary embolism. But for the people who has heavy smoker history, a change in pattern of respiratory difficulty should cause concern for the development of lung cancer.

  • Coughing up blood, even a small amount
  • The symptom of coughing up blood needs to be distinguished from the more general symptom of blood in sputum, where blood may come from other causes than coughing such as nasal bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding, etc. The doctors are also consider about lung cancer development.

  • Frequent lung infections (pneumonia or bronchitis)
  • Some of lung cancer patients are developed of pneumonia or bronchitis.

  • Persistent chest, shoulder, or back pain
  • Lung cancer can infiltrate into the chest wall and may cause pain in the chest. Development of chest pain in a high-risk person should alert the physician to the possibility of lung cancer with chest wall invasion, or plural involvement.

  • Change in the voice (hoarseness of voice)
  • These is also one of lung cancer's symptom, Its occur because of the pressure effect on the one of nerves that comes from the chest to the vocal cord (called recurrent laryngeal nerve).

  • Other sign and symptoms of Lung Cancer
  • Those people who develop of persistent cough more than 2 weeks, event they are non-smokers category may need to be consider about symptom of lung cancer. Other symptoms that can be related to late-stage lung cancer are trouble swallowing, neck and facial swelling, loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue and tiredness.

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    Causes and Risk factors of Lung Cancer

    Lung cancer is one of killer disease that most common cause by smoking (87%), Exposure to other carcinogens such as asbestos and radon gas. Lung cancer cases in United States and United Kingdom are yearly increase in the large number and most of patients has smoking history.

    The other risk factors to develop of lung cancer cases are air pollution, other lung diseases, diet, personal and family history. Radiation Therapy, especially on the chest area its possible as risk factor for developing lung cancer.

  • Lung Cancer Caused by Tobacco Smoking

  • Smoking tobacco is the first number of risk factor which responsible for lung cancer cases. The chance that a smoker will develop lung cancer is affected by many crietaria bellow:

    1. How young the smoker was when he started smoking
    2. How long the person has smoked
    3. How many of cigarettes are smoked per day.

    In most people, lung cancer is related to cigarette smoking. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or passive smoking also as risk factor to increase the number of lung cancer disease. The smoke in the air when someone else smokes, has been accepted as a cause of lung cancer since the Surgeon General's report of 1986.

  • Lung Cancer Caused by Asbestos Exposure

  • Exposure to the asbestos as a fiber that found in industrial materials is a big risk factor for lung cancer. Asbestos is a unique cause of lung cancer Asbestos, worker are 7 time more likely to develop and die from lung cancer. Asbestos Exposure is the second biggest cause of lung cancer after smoking. Lung cancer that caused by exposure to the asbestos material known as Asbestos Cancer or Mesothelioma. More about Mesothelioma information here "Mesothelioma Full Articles".

  • Lung Cancer Caused by Air Pollution

  • In the many of modern countries, especially an area with crowd population and transportation has high risk for increase of air pollution. According to the American Cancer Society, air pollution increases the risk for lung cancer cases event this risk is far less than smoking.

  • Lung Cancer Caused by Other Lung Disease

  • Tuberculosis and other lung diseases such as Pneumonia can leave scarring on the lungs. Lung cancer tends to develop in areas that are injured or scarred from lung diseases, specifically adenocarcinoma.

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    Pathophysiology of Lung Cancer

    Cancer is fundamentally a disease of regulation of tissue growth. A normal cell, Its became a cancer cell because a transform cell by mutation and genetic change which causing loss of entire chromosomes and result affected a single DNA nucleotide.

    The pathophysiology of lung cancer development is complex and incompletely understood, It will be more than one book to describe mechanisms how the pathophysiology of lung cancer process happened.

    This is an image that may give a simple mechanisms about pathophysiology of lung cancer process :

    Cigarette smoking is responsible for approximately 30% of all cancer deaths. Especially for lung cancer cases, smoking is hight risk to develop of lung cancer. About 85% of lung cancer cases in men and 75% in women caused by smoking. There are about 38 million former cigarette smokers and about 50 million smokers in the United States today (

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    Tests for Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

    In order to get correct diagnosis about suspect of lung cancer disease, the doctor may they will do a certain number of steps such as Anamnesis, Physical examination, Sputum cytology and Imaging techniques.

  • Anamnesis

  • The doctor may ask about medical and family history, lung cancer risk factors (such as smoking history, exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens), and symptoms. Other information also may important to help the doctor in order to focus their data such as about lifestyle, overall health, and the medications taken.

  • Physical Examination

  • The doctor performed a physical examination to looks for noticeable signs of lung cancer.

  • Sputum Cytology

  • Collecting sputum or mucus sample from the patients who diagnosed as suspect of lung cancer by deep-cough is important in order to do culture examination under microscope.

  • Imaging techniques

  • 1. Chest X-Ray. By using high energy electromagnetic radiation to penetrate the body and creates its image on a film. These method is used for diagnosing unusual masses within the lungs. If a mass or other abnormality is discovered in the image, The doctor may suggest a lung biopsy to make an official diagnosis.

    2. Computed tomography (CT) scan. Although chest x-rays are effective in detecting abnormalities within the lungs, healthcare professionals have found that the CT Scan is more effective in early detection of many lung diseases.

    This test is similar with an x-ray test, Its creates a detailed cross-sectional image of the body. So, the image result will perform and identify any abnormal mass tissues inside the lungs.
    A CT scan is usually performed in two steps for a better diagnosis:
    a). First step, the targeted area is scanned without a contrast agent.
    b). Second step, the targeted area is scanned after a contrast agent was administrated.

  • Pulmonary Function Test

  • This is easy test for the patient, Pulmonary function tests are diagnostic tests used for measuring how well the lungs take in air and expel air, and how efficiently they exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood by using Spirometry and Body Plethsmography.

  • Bronchoscopy Test

  • If the doctor has decided suspect of lung cancer to the patient or if a mass has been detected on a chest x-ray or scan of the lungs, They may want to perform a bronchoscopy. These is a diagnostic medical instrument used to obtain lung tissue, mass tissue and secretion samples for further analysis and also to detect or rule out tumors or any abnormalities of the lungs or airways.

  • Lung Biopsy and Pathology Tests

  • There are two types of lung biopsies, Surgical and Non-surgical/Needle. Surgical procedure is used to remove small piece of lung tissue that may indicated as cancer, benign tumors, lung diseases, and certain lung infections through a surgical incision in the chest.

    Lung biopsy by needle is most common medical procedure which taken by the doctors when the abnormal condition is near the surface of the lung, in the tissues surrounding the lungs, or on the chest wall.

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    Treatment of Lung Cancer

    Treatment of lung cancer is depends on the cell type, stage of disease, possibility for removing the tumor, and the patient's general medical condition. Options for treatment of lung cancer are include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or as well as combinations of these methods. For some patients, participation in a clinical trial is another option.

    The most important factors are the histopathologic (diseased tissue) type of tumor that is present and its stage, Once a lung cancer has been staged, the physician and patient can discuss treatment options.

  • Treatment of Lung Cancer by Surgery

  • Surgery is the only treatment that generally performed for limited-stage (stage I or sometimes stage II) Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Surgery is indicated for disease that has not spread beyond the lung. Lung Cancer cases about 10%-35% can be removed surgically, but removal does not always result in a cure, since the tumors may already have spread and can recur at a later time.

    Patients who diagnosed as lung cancer and they have other medical problems may not fit enough to have surgery, Radiotherapy may be given to the lung cancer instead. Surgery for non-small cell lung cancer can take several forms such as Mediastinoscopy, Thoracoscopy, Wedge resection, Segmentectomy, Lobectomy, Sleeve resection and Pneumonectomy.

  • Treatment of Lung Cancer by Radiation Therapy

  • Radiotherapy is known as radiation therapy, this is a treatment method for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) that uses high-energy, ionizing radiation {cobalt (60Co), radium (228Ra), iodine (131I), radon (221Rn), cesium (137Cs), phosphorus (32P), gold (198Au), iridium (192Ir), and yttrium (90Y)} to kill cancer cells.

    Radiotherapy is used before surgery to shrink a tumor, or after surgery to destroy remaining cancer cells and also used instead of surgery procedure to relieve symptoms such as shortness of breath. Radiotherapy may also be used very effectively to relieve symptoms, such as pain, in people with advanced SCLC. Some medical procedure may they do the radiotherapy and chemotherapy at the same time; this is known as chemoradiation.

  • Treatment of Lung Cancer by Chemotherapy

  • Lung cancer cases, NSCLC and SCLC may be treated with chemotherapy. Chemotherapy refers to the administration of drugs that stop the growth of cancer cells by killing them or preventing them from dividing. These kind of therapy that used some medications whether by mouth or by intravenous solution depending on which drugs are given. The medicines are prescribed by a medical oncologist, The doctors who specializes in treating cancer with medication.

    Chemotherapy may be given alone, as an adjuvant to surgical therapy, or in combination with radiotherapy. Chemotherapy may help radiation to be more effective. The doctor will work with patients to decide the best approach. An experimental drug given in a clinical trial may also be an option.

  • Treatment of Lung Cancer by Photodynamic Therapy

  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new therapy method for the cancers that used for different types and stages of lung cancer (as well as some other cancers). These is an effective treatment to the lung cancer disease, In early cases the treatment can eliminate the cancer and in more advanced cases the photodynamic therapy has used to palliate symptoms that result from blockage of the bronchial tubes.

    PDT treatment is useful for the care of persons with inoperable lung cancer {tumors are occult (hidden, unseen) on chest x-ray}. In photodynamic treatment, a photosynthesizing agent (such as a porphyrin, a naturally occurring substance in the body) is injected into the bloodstream a few hours prior to surgery.

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    Alternative Therapy for Lung Cancer

    All the cancers disease are need to be treatment as a comprehensive treatment including alternative medication or therapy. Many website they offers much information about how to make plan during treatment of lung cancer's patient. There are some alternative therapy for lung cancer disease that may help and improve the patient's condition such as Nutrition and Supplements, Herbal Medicine, Homeopathy, and Acupuncture.

  • Nutrition and Supplements

  • Patients who diagnosed as lung cancer they can take healthy nutrition and supplement to reduce symptoms of lung cancer, learn about our tips how to get better choice for your nutrition and supplement :

    - Lung cancer or others cancer disease are needs more vitamin and mineral on their body, especially vitamin B and Fe (iron). They can eat foods such as such as whole grains (if no allergy), dark leafy greens (such as spinach and kale), and sea vegetables.
    - Avoid kind of food that may you have allergic on them.
    - Eat antioxidant foods, including fruits (such as blueberries, cherries, and tomatoes) and vegetables (such as squash and bell pepper).
    - Patients with lung cancer they should avoid refined foods such as white breads, pastas, and sugar.
    - When you cook, use healthy cooking oils such as olive oil or vegetable oil.
    - Lung cancer patients they should avoid tobacco, caffein, alcohol and other stimulants.
    - Eat antioxidant foods, including fruits (such as blueberries, cherries, and tomatoes) and vegetables (such as squash and bell pepper).
    - Better for the patients who diagnosed as lung cancer to do exercise lightly, at least 3 or 5 days a week.

  • Herbal Medicine

  • Herbal medicine are commonly usefull strengthen and tone the body's systems. There are many herbs madicine from around the world such as dried extracts (capsules, powders, teas), glycerites (glycerine extracts), or tinctures (alcohol extracts) that you can find them on the internet or your healthy provider. Green tea (Camellia sinensis), Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), Olive leaf (Olea europaea), Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) and Fermented wheat germ extract are most common herbal used for antioxidant, anticancer, and immune effects. So, the patients who has lung cancer disease also suggested for them to use it.

  • Homeopathy Therapy

  • Homeopathy medicine aims to stimulate the individual's natural healing processes through the administration of minute "homeopathic" dilutions of specific remedies. Some homeopathics are derived from plants, minerals or animals, such as venom, tree sap or even coffee. An experienced homeopath can prescribe a regimen for supporting general health during lung cancer. Homeopathy may help reduce symptoms and strengthen overall constitution, reduce the effects of stress during cancer, and also its help the patients in order to decrease side effects of chemotherapy.

  • Acupuncture Therapy

  • Acupuncture therapy actually is not use as a treatment for the cancer disease, but based on some research data the acupuncture therapy can be help to reduce pain and shortness of breath which appear on the symptoms of cancer disease including lung cancer cases. Acupuncture and herbal therapy are may become usefull if they start to use them during active chemotherapy or radiation.

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